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Cores are glued to a grooved pieces of wood such that the tracheids were approximately 30 from their original vertical orientation, ensuring maximum visibility of the latewood to earlywood transition between successive years.

The wood is sanded with progressive finer paper to expose the growth rings for counting and measurement of ring width. The fundamental technique in dendrochronology is cross-dating, whereby distinctive series of narrow and wider tree rings are identified and matched among trees of different ages.

One major exception is the research group at the University of Western Ontario which has established long tree-ring chronologies for the Canadian Rockies, to reconstruct climatic and glacial history of the last millennium and evaluate tree growth - climate relationships at altitudinal treeline (e.g. The general absence of trees has obviously discouraged the pursuit of dendrochronology in the southern Interior Plains.

Although a belt of aspen parkland extends across the prairie provinces, much of the original aspen polar was removed for crop production and this tree species is much inferior to coniferous trees for tree ring research (Fritts, 1976).

Sensitive tree-ring series contain the best signatures but can also have missing and false rings, and partial rings (growth truncated during growing season).Calendar years can then be assigned to rings from dead wood.This extends tree-ring chronologies beyond the life spans of living trees, and enables dating of pre-historic events (e.g. Cross dating among tree ring series of about the same length and age enables the detection of missing and false rings.However, conifers in the treed uplands and sheltered coulees tend to be climatically sensitive (Sauchyn and Beaudoin, 1999).

Methods The cores and disks are processed using standard laboratory techniques (Stokes and Smiley, 1968).Whereas the use of these methods is limited by the relatively short life spans of most tree species, evidence of earlier floods and landslides should exist in dead wood.